Practice: Trust Game

(The code was adapted from the oTree documentation) We will create a Trust game in which we will have two players with different roles and those players will enter different pages.

../_images/trust_game_str.png

Fig. 10 Trust Game Structure

Stage

Page

Description

Stage 1

Send

First player chooses to send points between 0 and 10.

WaitingForP1

The amount sent by the first player will be tripled .

Stage 2

SendBack

Second player will decide to send a number of points back to the first player

WaitingForP2

Stage 3

Results

They will both see the final payoffs.

../_images/trust_ss4.png

Fig. 11 Decision Screen of P1 : Send page

../_images/trust_ss3.png

Fig. 12 Decision Screen of P2 : SendBack page

../_images/trust_ss2.png

Fig. 13 Results screen as it is shown to P1: Results page

../_images/trust_ss1.png

Fig. 14 Results screen as it is shown to P2: Results page

Game Parameters

Parameter

Description

Scope

Field/Type

players_per_group

(built-in) Number of players in group

Constants

endowment

Initial endowment of PI

Constants

Currency c()

multiplication_factor

The multiplier of P1’s transfer to P2

Constants

sent_amount

The amount sent by P1 to P2

Group

IntegerField

sent_back_amount

The amount sent back by P2 to P1

Group

IntegerField

  • Let’s create our empty app:

otree startapp trust

models.py

  • Go to models.py:

    • We modify the attribute players_per_group and add endowment and multiplication_factor

class Constants(BaseConstants):
    name_in_url = 'trust'
    players_per_group = 2
    num_rounds = 1

    endowment = c(10)
    multiplication_factor = 3
  • Then let’s add fields for sent_amount and sent_back_amount in Group class.

class Group(BaseGroup):
    sent_amount = models.CurrencyField(label = "How much would you like to send to Player 2?", min=c(0), max=c(10))
    sent_back_amount = models.CurrencyField(label = "How much would you like to send back to Player 1?", min=c(0))

Warning

Please note that we use a CurrencyField instead of IntegerField and we set the minimum and maximum values as currencies (c(0) and c(10)) accordingly.

  • We still need to determine the min and max for sent_back_amount. This is not straightforward because by the time our class definition runs, we don’t know how many points Player 1 sent, and how many points will be available for P2 to be sent back. oTree has an option to determine minimum, maximum and possible choices of a field dynamically. (See here for the relevant part in documentation). For this, we will define the method sent_back_amount_max(). So our Group class looks like this:

class Group(BaseGroup):
    sent_amount = models.CurrencyField(label = "How much would you like to send to Player 2?", min=c(0), max=c(10))
    sent_back_amount = models.CurrencyField(label = "How much would you like to send back to Player 1?", min=c(0))
    
    def sent_back_amount_max(self):
        return self.sent_amount * Constants.multiplication_factor

  • We have one more step until we are done with the models.py which is the function to handle the payoffs: set_payoffs(). We should define it under the Group method because we are going to call it by using after_all_players_arrive attribute in our page later on.

    • Here we can get each player, P1 and P2 in the group separetely. P1 is going to be our trustor, and P2 is going to be the trustee.

    def set_payoffs(self):
        p1 = self.get_player_by_id(1) # Get the first player in group
        p2 = self.get_player_by_id(2) # Get the second player in group
        
    
        p1.payoff = Constants.endowment - self.sent_amount + self.sent_back_amount 
        p2.payoff = self.sent_amount * Constants.multiplication_factor - self.sent_back_amount
    
    
  • Player 1 gets the points he didn’t transfer at the first stage plus what was sent back by Player 2.

  • Player 2 gets the points she received by what Player 1 transferred to her multiplied by 3, minus the amount she transferred back to him.

  • The final models.py looks like this:

# ==== These parts were generated by oTree =====
from otree.api import (
    models,
    widgets,
    BaseConstants,
    BaseSubsession,
    BaseGroup,
    BasePlayer,
    Currency as c,
    currency_range,
)


author = 'Your name here' 

doc = """
Your app description
"""


class Constants(BaseConstants):
    name_in_url = 'trust'
    players_per_group = 2
    num_rounds = 1

    endowment = c(10)
    multiplication_factor = 3


class Subsession(BaseSubsession):
    pass


class Group(BaseGroup):
    sent_amount = models.CurrencyField(label = "How much would you like to send to Player 2?", min=c(0), max=c(10))
    sent_back_amount = models.CurrencyField(label = "How much would you like to send back to Player 1?", min=c(0))

    def sent_back_amount_max(self):
        return self.sent_amount * Constants.multiplication_factor

    def set_payoffs(self):
        p1 = self.get_player_by_id(1) # Get the first player in group
        p2 = self.get_player_by_id(2) # Get the second player in group
        
        p1.payoff = Constants.endowment - self.sent_amount + self.sent_back_amount 
        p2.payoff = self.sent_amount * Constants.multiplication_factor - self.sent_back_amount
        
        
class Player(BasePlayer):
    pass


pages.py

  • As we planned at the beginning we will have 5 pages: Send, WaitingForP1, SendBack, WaitingForP2, Results. We have two pages with special display conditions: Send page only to be displayed to Player 1, and SendBack page only to be displayed to Player 2.

  • Waiting pages have two functions: Provides a place to wait while the other player decides, makes sure the calculations are made after we acquired the necessary information from the other player.

  • We start by defining Send page as usual. We have one form to fill, that is sent_amount in the group model:

class Send(Page):
    form_model = 'group'
    form_fields = ['sent_amount']
  • is_displayed on that page is a user-defined function which should return True if the player should see the page. We only want P1, whose id_in_group is 1, to see the page. Therefore our Send page becomes this:

class Send(Page):
    form_model = 'group'
    form_fields = ['sent_amount']

    def is_displayed(self):
        return self.player.id_in_group == 1
  • We define the WaitingForP1. We just need to add the page inherited from WaitPage class. We don’t need any calculations here:

class WaitForP1(WaitPage):
    pass
  • Next we need to add SendBack. It has a very similar structure to Send. But this time the form field we want to show the user is send_back_amount and this page whould be seen only by P2:

class SendBack(Page):
    form_model = 'group'
    form_fields = ['sent_back_amount']

    def is_displayed(self):
        return self.player.id_in_group == 2

  • We add the following WaitPage but this time we will make the payoff calculations after P2 finishes his decision. This will be triggered by after_all_players_arrive method which will call our set_payoffs() function.

class ResultsWaitPage(WaitPage):
    after_all_players_arrive = 'set_payoffs'
  • And finally we add Results page. We don’t need to add anything specific here.

class Results(Page):
    pass

We should not forget to update page_sequence after we defined our pages. It should look like this:

page_sequence = [Send, WaitForP1, SendBack, ResultsWaitPage, Results]

Templates

  • We add a template for Send, a template for SendBack and a template for Results. The first one is straightforward. So I will add the code below. As usual our templates goes in the subfolder with the app name in the templates folder (./templates/trust/Send.html) in the app:

{% extends "global/Page.html" %}
{% load otree static %}


{% block title %}
Please make a decision
{% endblock %}

{% block content %}

<p>
  You are selected as Player 1. You have {{Constants.endowment }} points. 
  You can transfer some amount of it to Player 2.
</p>

{% formfields %}

{% next_button %}


{% endblock %}


  • In a similar way we build SendBack.html but we would like to show the amount available for Player 2 to make the the transfer. This amount was calculated as sent_amont * Constants.multiplication_factor earlier in the set_payoffs function. But we don’t have it in our model and for us to show it in the template (as we cannot make calculations in the template), we should define vars_for_template and input that calculation into our template. Thus we should go back to pages.py to add the last two lines below:

class SendBack(Page):
    form_model = 'group'
    form_fields = ['sent_back_amount']

    def is_displayed(self):
        return self.player.id_in_group == 2

    def vars_for_template(self):
        return dict(tripled_amount=self.group.sent_amount * Constants.multiplication_factor)

Then we can create ./templates/trust/SendBack.html:

{% extends "global/Page.html" %}
{% load otree static %}


{% block title %}
Please make a decision
{% endblock %}

{% block content %}

<p>
  You are selected as Player 2.
  Player 1 chose to transfer you {{ group.sent_amount }} points thus you have {{tripled_amount}} points.
</p>

{% formfields %}

{% next_button %}


{% endblock %}
  • Finally we show the results to players (./templates/trust/Results.html). We can use the if conditions in order to show the information in a customized way easily:

{% extends "global/Page.html" %}
{% load otree static %}

{% block title %}
Results
{% endblock %}

{% block content %}
{% if player.id_in_group == 1 %}
<p>
  You sent Participant 1 {{ group.sent_amount }}.
  Participant 2 returned {{ group.sent_back_amount }}.
</p>
{% else %}
<p>
  Participant 1 sent you {{ group.sent_amount }}.
  You returned {{ group.sent_back_amount }}.
</p>

{% endif %}

<p>
  Your payoff is {{ player.payoff }}.
</p>
    
{% endblock %}


  • So this concludes the core of our game. We can improve the game in certain ways and of course visually. We will leave this to you at the moment until we cover styling in our next sessions.